Nitrogen dioxide is produced by an electric discharge in air and, when sprayed with a water mist, produces acid rain.
What it shows:
Some of the most irritating and dangerous pollutants in our atmosphere are gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Nitrogen dioxide is a deep orange-red gas that, together with smokelike particles, is responsible for the color of smog. In this demonstration, nitrogen dioxide is produced by an electric discharge in air and, when sprayed with a water mist, produces acid rain.
A magnesium ribbon is held with tongs and lit with a match or torch, making a bright flame that consumes the ribbon from the bottom up.
The ribbon should be about 20-30 cm long. Hold the ribbon with the tongs high and at arms length. Let the magnesium ribbon hang at a steep angle but not vertical. Light the bottom of the ribbon by bringing the end of the torch flame up to ribbon. Magnesium will melt before it lights, so carefully with the torch. The ribbon can also be lit with a wooden match.
Wear safety glasses and don't look directly at the flame.
Objects with a density lower than the fluid that they are submerged in will float; objects with a greater density will sink. This is shown using a brass ball and ping-pong ball of equal size, and a sea of beans.
How it works
500g of navy beans form a rather coarse fluid in a 1.5L glass beaker. Embedded in the beans is a ping pong ball, and sitting on the surface is a brass ball, 4cm in diameter. This fluid needs to have flow 'induced', and this is done by shaking the beaker side to side. The ratio of densities of brass:beans:ping-pong is approximately...
Monkey released from platform is shot by simultaneously fired cannon.
What it shows:
This is a demonstration of the independence of the horizontal and vertical components of velocity of a projectile. Often referred to as "the monkey and hunter," the problem is the following. A hunter (at ground level) aims a gun at a monkey hanging from a branch high in a tree. The monkey, being very intelligent, does not want to be shot. It knows that light travels faster than bullets and reasons that, if it lets go of the branch the instant it sees the flash of the gun,...
Vector representation of position, velocity, and acceleration.
What it shows:
A circular train track1 is mounted on a board. X-Y axes are painted on the board with the origin at the center of the circle. Vector Arrows (Newtonian Mechanics, Vectors and Forces in Equilibrium) representing position, velocity, or acceleration may be attached to the train to...
A physical pendulum with two adjustable knife edges for an accurate determination of "g".
What It Shows
An important application of the pendulum is the determination of the value of the acceleration due to gravity. By adding a second knife-edge pivot and two adjustable masses to the physical pendulum described in the Physical Pendulum demo, the value of g can be determined to 0.2% precision.
How It Works
Using a simple pendulum, the value of g can be determined by...
Using conservation of energy, calculate the height from which Barney must jump so that his head just barely kisses the floor at the bottom of his bungee cord jump. Then verify by experiment. Oops ... hate when that happens! It turns out that it's not so simple and there are important details that must be taken into account.
How it works:
Barney (the friendly pink dinosaur) is "sandbagged" (with a 5 kg weight, duct-taped around his waist) and suspended from the sky-hook by a 3.1 meter-long (unstretched) spring. The spring constant has been measured...
A simple and convincing demonstration of the intermediate axis theorem. Consider an object (a tennis racquet in this case) with three unequal principle moments of inertia. If the racquet is set into rotation about either the axis of greatest moment or least moment and is thereafter subject to no external torques, the resulting motion is stable. However, rotation about the axis of intermediate principle moment of inertia is unstable — the smallest perturbation grows and the rotation axis does not remain close to the initial axis of rotation.
This demonstration allows you to compare chalk’s compressive strength with its tensile strength.
How it works:
We use railroad chalk, which although being softer and harder to work, is nice and big and easy to see. A sample is placed in each of the two types of testing assembly (details in Setting it Up), and loads carefully applied. Railroad chalk has a tensile strength of 195kNm-2 ± 30kNm-2 (a load of 2.5 to 3.5kg) and a compressive strength of 500kNm-2 ± 65kNm-2 ( a load of 7 to 9kg).