# [M]

**Torsion Pendulum**

Determination of the moment of inertia by period measurements.

**Tennis Racquet Flip**

### What it shows:

A simple and convincing demonstration of the intermediate axis theorem. Consider an object (a tennis racquet in this case) with three unequal principle moments of inertia. If the racquet is set into rotation about either the axis of greatest moment or least moment and is thereafter subject to no external torques, the resulting motion is stable. However, rotation about the axis of intermediate principle moment of inertia is unstable — the smallest perturbation grows and the rotation axis does not remain close to the initial axis of rotation.

### How it works:...

Read more about Tennis Racquet Flip**Hula Hoop Rotational Inertia**

### What it shows:

A suspended hula hoop has the same period of oscillation as a pendulum whose length is equal to the diameter of the hoop.

### How it works:

The parallel-axis theorem allows us to readily deduce the rotational inertia of a hoop about an axis that passes through its circumference and is given by

*I = I _{cm}+MR^{2} = 2MR^{2}*

where *M* is the mass of the hoop and *R* is its radius. The period of oscillation thus becomes T = 2∏√(I/mgd) = 2∏√(2R/g), which is equal to that of a pendulum whose length...

**Parallel-Axis Theorem**

### What it shows:

One can show that the period of oscillation of an object doesn't change for different suspension points, as long as they're the same distance from the COM. This is consistent with what the parallel-axis theorem tells us about the moment of inertia of the object.

### How it works:

The parallel-axis theorm states that if *I*_{cm} is the moment-of-inertia of an object about an axis through its center-of-mass, then *I*, the moment of inertia about any axis parallel to that first one is given by *I* = *I*_{cm} +...

**Suitcase Gyro**

A motor driven gyro hidden in a suitcase gives surprising results when the suitcase is moved.

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Read more about Suitcase Gyro**Tail Wags Dog**

Lecturer tries to swing baseball bat while standing on turntable.

**Flyball Governor**

Rotating balls change speed as radius of rotation is changed.

**Coffee Mug on a String**

### What it shows:

Conservation of angular momentum and the exponential increase in friction are what save the coffee mug from smashing into the floor. Use this entertaining demonstration to introduce either of those physics concepts.

### How it works:

You need a pencil, a pen, a china cup (we use a china cup to add suspense and a threat of disaster), and about 1 meter of string. Tie one end of the string to the cup and the other to the pen. Hold the pencil in one hand and drape the string over it so the cup hangs down a few centimeters. Hold the pen with your other hand (arm...

Read more about Coffee Mug on a String**Orbiter**

Ball on string orbits with increasing speed as string is shortened.

### What it shows:

An object moving in a circular orbit of radius r has an angular momentum given by:

L = r × mv = mr^{2}ω.

A simple way to show conservation of angular momentum is a ball on a string, whirled around your head. As you change the length of the string, the ball's orbital speed changes to conserve angular momentum.

### How it works:

The orbiter consists of a meter length of cord with a wooden ball at one end and a wooden anchor at the other. The cord passes...

Read more about Orbiter**Crashing Pendulum**

A pendulum is allowed to "crash" into a bar, dramatically altering its motion, but energy is conserved as is evidenced by the return swing.

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Read more about Crashing Pendulum**Happy and Unhappy Balls**

Currently we provide two different versions of this experiment. One version uses balls rolling down a long, inclined track (roughly 2 meters), and the other version uses balls that swing on a pendulum.

### Track

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Read more about Happy and Unhappy Balls**Special Bouncing Collisions**

Same as previous except that mass ratio of balls is 1:3 (softball:basketball) leaving basketball dead and softball four times the height.

**Bouncing Collision**

A tennis ball/basketball combination is dropped to the floor ... the tennis ball theoretically bounces to nine times the original drop height.

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Read more about Bouncing Collision**Loop-the-loop**

A toy car rolling down a loop-the-loop track demonstrates the minimum height it must start at to successfully negotiate the loop.

### What it shows:

For an object to move in a vertical circle, its velocity must exceed a critical value vc=(Rg)^{1/2}, where R is the radius of the circle and g the acceleration due to gravity. This ensures that, at the top of the loop, the centripetal force balances the body's weight. This can be shown using a toy car on a looped track.

### How it works:

The car is released from the top of a ramp and runs down a slope towards...

Read more about Loop-the-loop