Kinetic Theory

Model States of Matter

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Large Styrofoam balls, suspended in air, in a plastic bag, and glued together, represent gaseous, liquid, and solid states, respectively.

OHP Kinetic Theory Model

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Simulation of molecular motion (Brownian, diffusion, etc.) with ball bearings on shaking table.

[In-Depth Description]

Brownian Motion of Latex Spheres

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Brownian motion of latex spheres, suspended in water, is observed under a microscope.

[In-Depth Description]

Brownian Motion of Smoke Particles

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Smoke cell under microscope; smoke particles seen bombarded by air molecules.

[In-Depth Description]

Golf Ball Atmosphere

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Demonstration of molecular motion and pressure using golf balls.

[In-Depth Description]

Boltzmann Distribution

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Mechanical analog of energy level populations which models a gas at essentially any temperature.

Air Spring

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A piston in a cylinder is hit with a mallet and behaves as if the cylinder were full of springs.

Magdeburg Hemispheres

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When evacuated, held together by bombardment of atmospheric molecules.

[In-Depth Description]

Collapse of 55 Gallon Drum

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Drum evacuated by vacuum pump; crushed by atmospheric bombardment.

[In-Depth Description]

Water Vapor Pressure

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A small amount of water, added to a vessel, results in an increase in pressure, as evidenced by an increase in volume.

Change of Volume with State

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CO2 and He balloons in liquid nitrogen.

[In-Depth Description]

Joule-Thomson Cooling

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Rapidly expanding CO2 gas from a fire extinguisher cools to become solid (dry ice).

Diffusion of Hydrogen

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Hydrogen, diffusing through porous ceramic, pressurizes a wash-bottle to produce a fountain.

Diffusion of Bromine Gas

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Gas jar containing bromine linked to second containing air; diffusion can be seen as brown coloration of air jar.

Diffusion of Colored Water

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Food coloring placed at bottom of water filled jar. Diffusion seen as color moves upwards through clear water.

OHP Diffusion & Effusion Simulation

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Simulation using ball bearings on shaking table.

Osmotic Carrot

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A hollow carrot filled with sugar water demonstrates osmotic pressure when placed in clean water.

Contact Us

Mailing Address: Lecture Demonstration Services, Science Center, Rm B-08A, 1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138
Campus Location: Science Center B-08A | Tel: (617) 495-5824 | Email: